The Korea Now Podcast #43 – Balázs Szalontai – ‘Memory, Responsibility and Reconciliation - From the Korean War to Denuclearization’

This episode of the Korea Now podcast features an interview that Jed Lea-Henry conducted with Balázs Szalontai. They speak about how memories of the Korean War have changed – or stayed the same – over time, how South Korea and North Korea have respectively examined their own failings, how both parties have approached the issue of responsibility, the willingness – or not – to look critically at history, the value of reconciliation, how all this relates to the denuclearisation issue, international comparisons for dismantling such weapons programs, the example of South Africa, and importantly how this informs the current moment and the prospects of a diplomatic solution for the North Korean crisis.

Balázs Szalontai is a Professor at Korea University, a former-Fulbright Scholar and Visiting Professor at Mongolian International University of Science and Technology, and a former-Research Associate at the Institute for International Education in Seoul. Balázs is the author of ‘Kim Il Sung in the Khrushchev Era: Soviet-DPRK Relations and the Roots of North Korean Despotism, 1953-1964’ and ‘North Korea Caught in Time: Images of War and Reconstruction’. As referenced in this podcast, he is also the author of ‘Captives of the Past: The Questions of Responsibility and Reconciliation in North Korea’s Narratives of the Korean War’ (https://www.academia.edu/25341526/Captives_of_the_Past_The_Questions_of_Responsibility_and_Reconciliation_in_North_Korea_s_Narratives_of_the_Korean_War), ‘Giving Up the Treasured Sword? The Prospects of North Korea’s Denuclearization in a Comparative Perspective’ (https://www.academia.edu/37118213/Giving_Up_the_Treasured_Sword_The_Prospects_of_North_Koreas_Denuclearization_in_a_Comparative_Perspective), and ‘North Korea's Peace Offensive’ (https://theglobalobservatory.org/2018/04/north-korea-peace-offensive-at-whose-expense/).

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The Korea Now Podcast #42 – Alexander Dukalskis – ‘From Above and Below - North Korea’s Brand of Authoritarianism’

This episode of the Korea Now podcast features an interview that Jed Lea-Henry conducted with Alexander Dukalskis. They speak about the nature of authoritarian control inside North Korea, how social life is monitored through community groups, how the North Korean ‘justice’ system enforces social compliance, the role of the marketplace in the now-changing face of this control, the break with government that the famine years provided, and how – if at all – outside information, the new capitalist environment, the presence of corruption, and increasing levels of everyday disobedience are eroding the regime’s authoritarian hold.

Alexander Dukalskis is an Assistant Professor in the School of Politics and International Relations at University College Dublin, a former Lecturer at the University of North Carolina, and a former Visiting Scholar at Columbia University and the Berlin Social Science Centre. Alex has an academic focus on authoritarian states, transitional justice, Asian politics, and international human rights; and his book ‘The Authoritarian Public Sphere’, was published in 2017. You can follow Alex on Twitter @AlexDukalskis, or read his research in-depth at: https://alexdukalskis.wordpress.com/

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The Korea Now Podcast #41 – Sean King – ‘From Singapore to Vietnam - The Future of Summit Diplomacy’

This episode of the Korea Now podcast features an interview that Jed Lea-Henry conducted with Sean King. They speak about the recent American-North Korean summits in Singapore and Vietnam, the benefits and drawbacks of such diplomacy, how the landscape has changed in this regard under the Trump presidency, the challenges presented by a South Korean administration racing ahead with a low-level North-South confederation, the possibilities of achieving complete denuclearisation, the future of economic engagement with the regime in Pyongyang, the value and uses of sanctions, and the limitations imposed by North Korea’s ideological commitment to race-based nationalism.

Sean King is a Senior Vice-President at the business advisory firm, Park Strategies, an Affiliated Scholar at the University of Notre Dame’s Liu Institute for Asia & Asian Affairs, and a former-Senior Advisor for Asia in the U.S. & Foreign Commercial Service (USFCS) within the United States Department of Commerce. Previous talks on this topic by Sean can be found at: https://www.bloomberg.com/news/videos/2018-04-23/park-strategies-sean-king-cautiously-pessimistic-on-n-korea-talks-video, and: https://kroc.nd.edu/news-events/events/2019/02/27/the-u-s-north-korea-summit-a-real-time-assessment/. (Sean King’s staff profile at Park Strategies: http://www.parkstrategies.com/staff_detail.php?id=18).

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The Korea Now Podcast #40 – Andrew Scobell – ‘In the Shadow of a Rising China’

This episode of the Korea Now podcast features an interview that Jed Lea-Henry conducted with Andrew Scobell. They speak about the rise of China, its expanding militarism in Southeast Asia, the Belt and Road Initiative and other aspects of regional economic interdependence, how the changing face of China is affecting North Korea, the history and fraught alliance between the two countries, what China wants from North Korea, how Pyongyang has managed to leverage its weakness against its much stronger neighbour, the risks that North Korea presents to Chinese stability, and the future of the relationship.

Andrew Scobell is a senior political scientist at the RAND Corporation, former-professor of international affairs at the George H. W. Bush School of Government and Public Service, a former-research professor in the Strategic Studies Institute at the U.S. Army War College, and a former-director of the China certificate program at Texas A&M University in College Station, Texas. Pertinent to this podcast, and Andrew’s work on China and North Korea, a list of his recent publications can be found at: https://www.rand.org/about/people/s/scobell_andrew.html#publications

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The Korea Now Podcast #39 – Stephen Nagy – ‘Regionalism, Failed Summits and the View from Japan’

This episode of the Korea Now podcast features an interview that Jed Lea-Henry conducted with Stephen Nagy. They speak about the nature of East-Asian regionalism, the challenges it needs to overcome, the future prospects for deeper cooperation in the region, the changing face of Japan within this environment, the political climate under the Shinzo Abe government, and importantly, the impact that a re-emergent Japan is having on South Korea. Jed and Stephen then shift focus slightly to analyse the theatre, fallout and long-term ramifications of the recent Trump-Kim summit in Hanoi.

Stephen Nagy is a Distinguished Fellow at Canada's Asia Pacific Foundation (APF), a Fellow with the Canadian Global Affairs Institute (CGAI), and an appointed China expert with Canada’s China Research Partnership. Stephen is currently a Senior Associate Professor in the Department of Politics and International Studies at the International Christian University, Tokyo. He was selected for the 2018 Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) AILA Leadership Fellowship in Washington, and has published widely in both peer-reviewed journals and popular media. You can follow Stephen’s writing, and access the research sources for this podcast at: http://icu.academia.edu/StephenRobertNagy and http://stephenrobertnagy.academia.edu/

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The Korea Now Podcast #38 – Bruce Bennett – ‘Pathways to Korean Reunification’

This episode of the Korea Now podcast features an interview that Jed Lea-Henry conducted with Bruce Bennett. They speak about the various pathways to Korean reunification, the likelihood of this occurring via war, regime collapse or negotiation, the relative steps involving trust-building, low-level confederation, and broader political integration, the security considerations and national interests of China, America and South Korea, how successful these different pathways are likely to be, the various concessions that South Koreans will need to undertake, and the future of the inter-Korean negotiations. In part this discussion revolves around Bruce Bennett’s article, ‘Alternative Paths to Korean Unification’ (https://www.rand.org/pubs/research_reports/RR2808.html).

Bruce Bennett is a Senior Researcher at the RAND Corporations International Security and Defense Policy Center and the Arroyo Strategy, Doctrine, and Resources Program. Working on defense, strategy, force planning, and counter-proliferation, Bennett specializes in asymmetric threats. Bennett received his B.S. in economics from the California Institute of Technology and his Ph.D. in policy analysis from the Pardee RAND Graduate School (https://www.rand.org/about/people/b/bennett_bruce.html).

*** This interview occasionally references a previous episode of the Korea Now Podcast (Episode #11) where Bruce Bennett discusses the “Problem of the North Korean Elites” (http://korea-now-podcast.libsyn.com/the-korea-now-podcast-11-bruce-bennett-getting-ready-for-unification-the-problem-of-the-north-korean-elite).

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The Korea Now Podcast #37 – Boris Kondoch – ‘The Use of Force and North Korea - International Law, Normative Practice and R2P’

This episode of the Korea Now podcast features an interview that Jed Lea-Henry conducted with Boris Kondoch. They speak about the legal foundations of the use of force in international law, the right to self-defence, the injunction against the use of force, protections against international aggression, the conditions under which such central legal tenets stand-up and when they fail, the place held by human rights law, the right to humanitarian intervention as a form of remedy, how the doctrine of the Responsibility to Protect (R2P) has been incorporated into the international order, and importantly how these frameworks apply legally and normatively to the case of North Korea.

An expert in international law, Boris Kondoch is a Professor at Far East University in South Korea and the Editor of the Journal of International Peacekeeping. He has previously taught international law and ethics in international relations as a Professor at the graduate school of law and the political science department of Korea University, and held a research fellowship for the President of the German Society of International Law at the Institute of Public Law at Johann Wolfgang Goethe University. Pertinent to this discussion, Boris is the author of ‘The Responsibility to Protect and Northeast Asia: The Case of North Korea’(http://www.academia.edu/5902542/The_Responsibility_to_Protect_and_Northeast_Asia_The_Case_of_North_Korea), ‘North Korea and the Use of Force in International Law’(http://www.academia.edu/5902336/North_Korea_and_the_Use_of_Force_in_International_Law_1), and ‘Jus ad Bellum and Cyber Warfare in Northeast Asia’(https://www.academia.edu/14426288/Jus_ad_Bellum_and_Cyber_Warfare_in_Northeast_Asia).

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The Korea Now Podcast #36 – Meredith Shaw – ‘The Strong and Prosperous Nation - Understanding North Korea through its Literature’

This episode of the Korea Now podcast features an interview that Jed Lea-Henry conducted with Meredith Shaw. They speak about the importance of studying North Korean literature, the insight this gives the reader into North Korean ideology and culture, the trends that are present in recent North Korean literature, the ways in which the slogan of the ‘Strong and Prosperous Nation’ has been re-interpreted/managed since 2012, how this literature is constructing the image and legitimation of Kim Jong-un, and the changes that can be gleaned about North Korean society.

Meredith Shaw is an Associate Professor in the Institute of Social Sciences at the University of Tokyo and the Managing Editor of Social Science Japan Journal. Meredith has worked as a research associate and translator at the Korean Institute of National Unification, and her current research focuses on the analysis of North Korean literature. Her article, ‘The Sun Sort-of Rises: The “Strong and Prosperous” Slogan in Recent North Korean Fiction’ can be found at http://www.keia.org/sites/default/files/publications/kei_aps_shaw_final.pdf and, importantly, her ongoing blog on North Korean literature is available at http://dprklit.blogspot.com/

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The Korea Now Podcast #35 – Terence Roehrig – ‘Nuclear Umbrella - American Military Commitment to the Korean Peninsula’

This episode of the Korea Now podcast features an interview that Jed Lea-Henry conducted with Terence Roehrig. They speak about the Cold War origins of America’s nuclear umbrella, how this nuclear deterrent relates to South Korea, the history of American nuclear weapons on the Korean peninsula, how the nuclear umbrella is seen inside South Korea, the impact it has had on North Korean behaviour, the theory behind such a deterrence mechanism, North Korea’s own military and nuclear capability, the security landscape and calculations concerning the peninsula, and how this nuclear umbrella remains important for the Korean theatre beyond its military component.

As well as being a past president of the Association of Korean Political Studies, Terence Roehrig is a Professor of National Security Affairs and the Director of the Asia-Pacific Studies Group at the U.S. Naval War College. Terence is the author of ‘From Deterrence to Engagement: The U.S. Defense Commitment to South Korea’, ‘Korean Dispute over the Northern Limit Line: Security, Economics, or International Law?’, and pertinent to this podcast ‘Japan, South Korea, and the United States Nuclear Umbrella: Deterrence After the Cold War’(https://cup.columbia.edu/book/japan-south-korea-and-the-united-states-nuclear-umbrella/9780231157995).

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The Korea Now Podcast #34 – Tim Shorrock – ‘Gwangju Declassified - American Involvement in the Uprising’

This episode of the Korea Now podcast features an interview that Jed Lea-Henry conducted with Tim Shorrock. They speak about the atmosphere leading up to the Gwangju Uprising, how the events unfolded on the ground, the decision making processes of the key actors, the impact the uprising had on democratic formation inside South Korea, the resulting criminal prosecutions, and importantly the role played behind the scenes by the American administration.

Tim Shorrock is a Washington-based investigative journalist whose work over the past 35 years has appeared in publications such as The Nation, Salon, Daily Beast, Mother Jones, The Progressive, Foreign Policy in Focus and Asia Times. He is the author of ‘Spies For Hire: The Secret World of Outsourced Intelligence’ and ‘Kwangju Diary: Beyond Death, Beyond the Darkness of the Age’. Tim’s reporting on Gwangju is available at: http://timshorrock.com/

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The Korea Now Podcast #33 – Joseph Juhn– ‘Exodus, Identity and Revolution - The History of Koreans in Cuba’

This episode of the Korea Now podcast features an interview that Jed Lea-Henry conducted with Joseph Juhn. They speak about the 1905 migration of Koreans to Mexico, their onward movement to Cuba, the difficulties they experienced in both countries, the challenges of maintaining split identities as a diaspora, how the Japanese annexation and division of the Korean peninsula reshaped these identities, the nature of this community and how it maintains today, and the impact they have had on Cuban society and politics.

Joseph Juhn is a former attorney and Intellectual Property Consultant at KOTRA (Korea Trade-Investment Promotion Agency). In December2015, he travelled to Cuba and by chance found himself meeting with members of the Korean-Cuban community. From this first encounter with this diaspora, Joseph has produced and directed an independent, feature-length documentary about the history of Koreans in Cuba, titled ‘Jeronimo’. (Link to the film’s website: http://www.jeronimothemovie.com/).

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The Korea Now Podcast #32 – Paul Kyumin Lee – ‘Divided Relatives, Defector Communities and Family Reunions’

This episode of the Korea Now podcast features an interview that Jed Lea-Henry conducted with Paul Kyumin Lee. They speak about the issues faced by people with family members inside North Korea, the time-sensitive need to secure a formal mechanism for family reunions between America and North Korea, the political and security landscape that such an agreement is being stifled by, the challenges and issues being faced by the North Korean defector community, and primarily the work that is being undertaken by ‘Divided Families USA’ in seeking a solution to these challenges.

Paul Kyumin Lee is a graduate of Yale University, and is currently a junior fellow in the Asia Program at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace in Washington, DC. Paul also holds the position of Vice-President of the non-governmental, non-profit organization, Divided Families USA. This organisation advocates for a formal mechanism of reunion for Americans of Korean descent and their direct relatives in North Korea who were separated during the Korean War. (Website link to Divided Families USA: http://www.dfusa.org/)

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The Korea Now Podcast #31 – Terence Roehrig – ‘Conflict at Sea - The Korean Northern Limit Line’

This episode of the Korea Now podcast features an interview that Jed Lea-Henry conducted with Terence Roehrig. They speak about the history of the Northern Limit Line that delineates the ocean boundary between the two Korea’s, the circumstances under which it was created, its standing under international law, the nature of the dispute surrounding it, what is at stake for both countries, and the ongoing skirmishes and naval conflicts concerning the line.

As well as being a past president of the Association of Korean Political Studies, Terence Roehrig is a Professor of National Security Affairs and the Director of the Asia-Pacific Studies Group at the U.S. Naval War College. Terence is the author of ‘From Deterrence to Engagement: The U.S. Defense Commitment to South Korea’ and ‘Korean Dispute over the Northern Limit Line: Security, Economics, or International Law?’

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The Korea Now Podcast #30 – Joseph Wright – ‘The Nature of North Korea’s Autocracy’

This episode of the Korea Now podcast features an interview that Jed Lea-Henry conducted with Joseph Wright. They speak about the nature of North Korea’s autocratic regime, its unique longevity, the importance of having two significant early international patrons, the control asserted over the military and political institutions by the Kim dynasty, and the highly ‘personalistic’ nature of the regime. Beyond this core structure, they talk through other aspects of Joseph’s research on coups, democratisation, foreign aid, regime change and human rights prosecutions.

Joseph Wright is a political scientist and Co-Director of Global and International Studies at Pennsylvania State University. He has previously held a position as the ‘Jeffrey L. and Sharon D. Hyde Early Career Professorship’, and is the author of Foreign Pressure and the Politics of Autocratic Survival (Oxford University Press) and How Dictatorships Work(Cambridge University Press). Important to this podcast, he is also the author of the article, ‘The North Korean autocracy in comparative perspective’ (http://sites.psu.edu/wright/files/2017/11/Song-Wright-NKorea-1cydpln.pdf).

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The Korea Now Podcast #29 – Jieun Baek – ‘Information and Change in North Korea’

This episode of the Korea Now podcast features an interview that Jed Lea-Henry conducted with Jieun Baek. They speak about the information landscape inside North Korea, the limitations and punishments imposed upon the consumption of outside media, the ways in which knowledge of the outside world has managed to bypass these restrictions since the famine-years, and the impact that such new sources of  information is having on both individuals and the broader North Korean society.

Jieun Baek is a Ph.D. candidate in Public Policy at the University of Oxford. She has previously held a position as a research fellow at the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs at Harvard University, and has written for The New York Times, Foreign Affairs, Politico and the Huffington Post. Pertinent to this podcast, Jieun is the author of ‘North Korea’s Hidden Revolution: How the Information Underground is Transforming a Closed Society’.

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The Korea Now Podcast #28 – Clint Work – ‘Operational Control (OPCON), Troop Withdrawals and the Carter Years’

This episode of the Korea Now podcast features an interview that Jed Lea-Henry conducted with Clint Work. They speak about the history of Operational Control (OPCON) between South Korean and American forces, the issue of potential troop withdrawals, the difficulties that have arisen over the years in trying to find a solution to this issue, the inherent risk that such actions might embolden North Korea, and importantly the Presidential years of Jimmy Carter and how they help to contextualize the current debate.

Clint Work is an Assistant Professor at the University of Utah's Asia Campus in Incheon, South Korea. Working on U.S.-Korea relations and U.S. Foreign Policy, he has previously held positions at the International Crisis Group’s (ICG) Seoul office, and writes regularly for various media outlets, including The Washington Post, Foreign Policy, The Diplomat, Sino-NK, and the Peterson Institute for International Economics. Clint is currently a Ph.D. candidate working on U.S.-Korean relations under President Jimmy Carter in the late 1970s and Carter’s abortive withdrawal of U.S. ground combat forces from South Korea.

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The Korea Now Podcast #27 – Sam Wells – ‘The Decision for War in Korea - Stalin, Mao and Kim’

This episode of the Korea Now podcast features an interview that Jed Lea-Henry conducted with Sam Wells. They speak about the events leading up to the Korean War, the roles played by Joseph Stalin, Mao Zedong and Kim Il-sung, the strategic interests of these three actors, the different calculations they made, the personal interactions between the three men that led to war, and the long-term ramifications of their ultimate decision to launch the Korean War.

Sam Wells is a former Deputy and Associate Director of the Woodrow Wilson Center, and a former Director of the West European Studies Program at the Wilson Center, where he also founded the International Security Studies Program in 1977 (which he directed until 1985), and has previously taught at the University of North Carolina and Wellesley College. Working within the Cold War History Project, Sam has played a central role in bringing to light new historical documentation on the events surrounding the Korean War. (Links to the Wilson Center’s documentation program related to North Korea: https://www.wilsoncenter.org/program/north-korea-international-documentation-project and https://digitalarchive.wilsoncenter.org/)

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The Korea Now Podcast #26 – Daniel Wertz – ‘Talking to North Korea - A History of Nuclear Diplomacy’

This episode of the Korea Now podcast features an interview that Jed Lea-Henry conducted with Daniel Wertz. They speak about the history of North Korea’s nuclear program, how this program has evolved over the years, North Korea’s motivation in developing a nuclear capability, the challenges of American-North Korean diplomacy over the issue, the reoccurring themes of the negotiations, and the prospects of a peaceful outcome.

Daniel Wertz is a foreign policy professional focussing on the issues of sanctions, non-proliferation issues and human rights related to the Korean peninsula. Daniel is currently the Program Manager at the National Committee on North Korea (NCNK), which works to promote stability and peace on the Korean Peninsula. Daniel is also the lead researcher and editor at North Korea in the World (https://www.northkoreaintheworld.org/), and related specifically to this podcast, is the author of ‘The U.S., North Korea, and Nuclear Diplomacy’(https://www.ncnk.org/resources/briefing-papers/all-briefing-papers/history-u.s.-dprk-relations).

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The Korea Now Podcast #25 – Urs Gerber – ‘Monitoring the Peace inside the Korean Demilitarized Zone’

This episode of the Korea Now podcast features an interview that Jed Lea-Henry conducted with retired Major-General Urs Gerber. They speak about the Korean Armistice Agreement, how this agreement governs the ceasefire between the two Korea’s, the nature of the Demilitarized Zone, what life is like working in the border village of Panmunjom, how border tensions should be properly contextualized, and the difficulties in monitoring and enforcing the Korean Armistice Agreement.

Major-General Urs Gerber has an educational background in history, has served as an intelligence officer under the Swiss Ministry of Defense, was the Head of the Armed Forces’ Security Cooperation between Euroatlantic States, and importantly for this podcast, from 2012 until his retirement last year Urs Gerber was the Head of the Swiss Delegation of the Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission (NNSC), charged with monitoring the Korean Armistice Agreement inside the Demilitarized Zone. Urs is now the Editor-in-Chief of Military Power Revue.

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The Korea Now Podcast #24 – Ned Forney – ‘Operation Christmas Cargo - The Hungnam Evacuation’

This episode of the Korea Now podcast features an interview that Jed Lea-Henry conducted with Ned Forney. They speak about the 1950 Hungnam Evacuation, the events leading up to the mission, the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir, the long retreat to Hungnam, the overwhelming scope of the evacuation, the constant difficulty of holding Chinese forces at bay, and how the operation morphed into a humanitarian rescue mission for 100,000 North Korean refugees.

Ned Forney is a Seoul based writer, with a research focus on the Battle of the Chosin Reservoir and the Hungnam Evacuation. Ned lectures at schools, universities, non-governmental organisations, and military groups, and has been a consultant for NBC and PBS documentary series’ on the Korean War. A Marine veteran himself, Ned is also the grandson of the late Colonel Edward H. Forney, the evacuation control officer during the Hungnam Evacuation. You can follow Ned’s work at: http://nedforney.com/

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